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Title: Understanding Victim Behaviour Through Offender Behaviour Typologies
Contributor(s): Petherick, Wayne (author); Ferguson, Claire (author)
Publication Date: 2012
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Abstract: This paper presents a theory of victimisation based on offender motivational typologies. That is, the proposed motivational typology can be applied to victim behaviour in all crimes and behaviours, and represents an attempt to explain the social, emotional and cognitive milieu in which victimisation occurs. Throughout this paper, the term victim will be used to describe anyone who suffers harm or loss, either at their own hands or at the hands of others. Over time, numerous attempts have been made to answer the question, what causes criminal behaviour? This includes the "lumps and bumps" theories of the phrenologists, and the body typing of the Sheldons (see Seigel, 2008), through to socio-cultural explanations like labeling and strain theory (see White and Haines, 2004 for these and other perspectives). More modern attempts to understand the motivational forces behind criminality include Men Who Rape by Nicholas Groth (1979), Groth, Burgess and Holmstrom (1977), and the first adaptation of the "Groth typology" in Practical Aspects of Rape Investigation (Hazelwood, 2009). As with these attempts to understand offenders, victim behaviour has come under the spotlight. For example, Rhodes and McKenzie (1998) asked the question "why do battered women stay?", Koziol-McLain, Webster, McFarlane, Block, Ulrich, Glass and Campbell (2006) examined victim factors in femicide-suicide, and Mechanic, Weaver and Resick (2000) considered victim factors in stalking. These are, obviously, but a few examples among many. ... First, this article will broadly define motivation, before going on to discuss the so-called "Groth typology" that was originally developed to understand rapist motivations and treatment in a clinical setting. Following this, the investigative adaptation of this typology by Hazelwood (2009) will be presented. The difference between motivations and victim precipitation will then be provided, leading into the main focus of this piece: the way that the offender motivation typologies apply to victim behaviour. Some research support for the motivational typologies will be presented to close out the discussion. It should be noted that while the application of the typology discussed in this paper has some strong empirical and anecdotal support, it is a work in progress. Further research is currently being conducted to empirically validate this approach, and the specific application to victim behaviours to increase understanding and awareness of the psychological milieu in which victimisation occurs.
Publication Type: Conference Publication
Conference Name: 5th Annual Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, Cairns, Australia, 7th - 8th July, 2011
Source of Publication: Proceedings of the 5th Annual Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, p. 100-111
Publisher: James Cook University
Place of Publication: Townsville, Australia
Field of Research (FOR): 180119 Law and Society
160204 Criminological Theories
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: E1 Refereed Scholarly Conference Publication
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