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Title: Development, Application, and Results of Routine Monitoring of Marek's Disease Virus in Broiler House Dust Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR
Contributor(s): Walkden-Brown, Steve W (author)orcid ; Islam, Aminul (author); Groves, Peter John (author); Rubite, Ambrosio (author); Sharpe, Sue M (author); Burgess, Susan (author)
Publication Date: 2013
DOI: 10.1637/10380-92112-REG.1
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Abstract: Results are presented from four studies between 2002 and 2011 into the feasibility of routinely monitoring Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) in broiler house dust using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement. Study 1 on two farms showed that detection of MDV-1 occurred earlier on average in dust samples tested using qPCR than standard PCR and in spleen samples from five birds per shed assayed for MDV-1 by qPCR or standard PCR. DNA quality following extraction from dust had no effect on detection of MDV-1. Study 2 demonstrated that herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and MDV serotype 2 (MDV-2) in addition to MDV-1 could be readily amplified from commercial farm dust samples, often in mixtures. MDV-2 was detected in 11 of 20 samples despite the absence of vaccination with this serotype. Study 3 investigated the reproducibility and sensitivity of the qPCR test and the presence of inhibitors in the samples. Samples extracted and amplified in triplicate showed a high level of reproducibility except at very low levels of virus near the limit of detection. Mixing of samples prior to extraction provided results consistent with the proportions in the mixture. Tests for inhibition showed that if the template contained DNA in the range 0.5-20 ng/ml no inhibition of the reaction was detectable. The sensitivity of the tests in terms of viral copy number (VCN) per milligram of dust was calculated to be in the range 24-600 VCN/mg for MDV-1, 48-1200 VCN/mg for MDV-2, and 182-4560 VCN/mg for HVT. In study 4 the results of 1976 commercial tests carried out for one company were analyzed. Overall 23.1% of samples were positive for MDV-1, 26.1% in unvaccinated and 16.4% in vaccinated chickens. There was marked regional and temporal variation in the proportion of positive samples and the MDV-1 load. The tests were useful in formulating Marek's disease vaccination strategies. The number of samples submitted has increased recently, as has the incidence of positive samples. These studies provide strong evidence that detection and quantitation of MDV-1, HVT, and MDV-2 in poultry house dust using qPCR is robust, sensitive, reproducible, and meaningful, both biologically and commercially. Tactical vaccination based on monitoring of MDV-1 rather than routine vaccination may reduce selection pressure for increased virulence in MDV-1.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Avian Diseases, 57(2), p. 544-554
Publisher: American Association of Avian Pathologists
Place of Publication: United States of America
ISSN: 1938-4351
Field of Research (FOR): 070712 Veterinary Virology
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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School of Environmental and Rural Science

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