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Title: Human Dimensions of Soil and Water Conservation: Mongolia
Contributor(s): Hannam, Ian  (author)
Publication Date: 2010
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Abstract: The fundamental philosophy of soil and water conservation is that "the conservation and enhancement of the quality of soil and water are a common concern of all humanity. Inherent in this philosophy is the responsibility of humanity for maintaining and enhancing the productivity of soil, taking effective measures to prevent soil degradation and safeguarding and improving the quality of water resources to meet the needs of agriculture, society and nature". In this regard, it is recognized that nations should prepare national action plans to assist with the implementation of good land husbandry. These plans should provide for the conservation of soil and water by including provisions for integrated land management; environmental impact assessment; development of adequate environmental standards and controls; the monitoring of environmental quality; scientific and technical cooperation; development and transfer of technology; development and sharing of information and knowledge; and environmental education and training (WASWC 2008). Since the 1950s Mongolia had been transformed by rapid economic development and industrialization from what was predominantly an agricultural economy based on nomadic animal husbandry, towards an industrial economy. Today over half the population lives in urban areas. As was the case with many rapidly industrializing countries, environmental and resource management considerations were generally absent from land planning and utilization. As a consequence, Mongolia's soil and water resources are now significantly degraded. With an area of 1.56 million square km, and a population of around only 2 million, Mongolia is the seventeenth largest country in the world territorially but much of the land is not productive. Land that is productive is under developmental pressures that are leading to environmental deterioration. Land available for agricultural production is decreasing: grazing land was 141 million hectares in the1960s but has now dropped to 117 million hectares while the number of livestock has risen to 43 million head. This number has increased in recent years because Mongolia has not had a dzud for several years. Like many developing countries, Mongolia's economy is raw material oriented, where raw materials from the agricultural and mining sectors and semi finished products provide the main export items. Many environmental, social, economic, political and legislative factors interact in Mongolia that affect its ability achieve effective soil and water conservation. Mongolia was a socialist state with a centrally planned economy until 1990 when it became independent of the USSR and adopted a democratic form of government and free market economy (UNDP 2005).
Publication Type: Book Chapter
Source of Publication: Human Dimensions of Soil and Water Conservation: A Global Perspective, p. 341-356
Publisher: Nova Science Publishers
Place of Publication: United States of America
ISBN: 1617289574
Field of Research (FOR): 180111 Environmental and Natural Resources Law
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO): 940110 Environmental Services
HERDC Category Description: B1 Chapter in a Scholarly Book
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Series Name: Agriculture Issues and Policies
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Views: 169
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Editor: Editor(s): Ted L Napier
Appears in Collections:Book Chapter
School of Law

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