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Title: Vocational Education Training in Vietnam: Perceptions and Improvement of Image
Contributor(s): Dang, Vi Hoang (author); Denman, Brian  (supervisor)orcid ; Hathaway, Tanya  (supervisor)
Conferred Date: 2017-04-01
Copyright Date: 2016-06
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Related DOI: 10.5430/wjss.v2n2p1

This study addresses the perceptions of key stakeholders and improvement of image in the vocational education and training sector of Vietnam. It identifies a range of perceived positions of key stakeholders concerning the context of the Vietnamese Government’s recent efforts to promote training in the vocational education sector as an alternative to university studies. The latter is evidenced in the funding records for the sector which has demonstrated a tenfold increase, from 49 million United States Dollars (USD) to 490 million USD, in the period 2001 to 2011 under Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung (decision No. 630/QDTTg, 2011). The expectations of Government are that the funding will encourage an increased number of students to enrol in the Vocational Education Training (VET) sector which will, in turn, lead to a greater number of skilled workers, with the expectation of becoming an industrial nation (as perceived by the rest of the world) by 2020. Currently, community acceptance of the VET sector in Vietnam has been very slow, which has major implications for the country. This study is a response to this apparent lack of acceptance from the Vietnamese community.

In order to gain a greater insight into the perceptions of key stakeholders, this study applied a mixed-method approach (quantitative and qualitative), which comprises of three methods to collect data. The quantitative method used a survey questionnaire to explore students’ perceptions. The qualitative method involved open-ended interviews to explore parental perspectives on the sector. The last method utilised the nominal group technique to unpack the perceptions of six key stakeholders who have a clear understanding of and close relationship with the VET sector in Vietnam.

By means of triangulation, two reliable findings emerged from the research. First, it was revealed that the issue of the relationship between VET providers and industries resulted in a convergence of impact concerning the quality of VET programs. The second finding showed a web of influences on student perceptions of the VET sector, which was mapped to indicate preference according to priority factors. These influences include by order of ranking: (1) family/parents, (2) school/guidance counsellors (3) government policies; (4) social perceptions; (5) VET image; and (6) media.

Based on these findings, five recommendations are proposed to aim at eliminating the negative perceptions on the VET sector and to helping young people, parents, industries and community to recognise that their perceived views of the VET sector in Vietnam may be unfounded.

The first recommendation is that the traditional understandings and notions of VET be replaced by an inclusive and transformational system under a new name, with new policy development and a revamp of the VET programme, facilitating a smoother transition between school and work.

The second recommendation relates with the relationship between the VET providers and industries. A model of the relationships between two institutions is proposed for further study and consideration.

The third recommendation is to conduct a promotional campaign focusing on the VET sector through media.

The fourth recommendation is to develop a career advice and guidance system, in which parents and guidance counsellors collectively assist students in guiding career choice.

The fifth recommendation relates to the VET quality assurance policies which is proposed based on the findings from the semi quantitative approach nominal group technique. The reason to propose this because the big problems for the VET image were the quality of teaching staff, curriculum, teaching methods, teaching/learning facilities student outcomes which were analysed and discussed in the finding chapter.

The last recommendation proposes factors of influence concerning the perceptual process of an individual. The best way to change the perception of an individual is to change the perceived object which, for this study, is the VET sector in Vietnam.

Publication Type: Thesis Doctoral
Fields of Research (FoR) 2008: 130108 Technical, Further and Workplace Education
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 390308 Technical, further and workplace education
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2008: 930501 Education and Training Systems Policies and Development
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 160205 Policies and development
HERDC Category Description: T2 Thesis - Doctorate by Research
Description: Please contact if you require access to this thesis for the purpose of research or study.
Appears in Collections:School of Education
Thesis Doctoral

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