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Title: The Effects of Different Sources and Levels of Trace Minerals on Poultry Performance and Gut Health
Contributor(s): Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hoai  (author); Swick, Robert  (supervisor)orcid ; Morgan, Natalie  (supervisor)orcid ; Toghyani Khorasgani, Mehdi  (supervisor); Roberts, Juliet R  (supervisor)
Conferred Date: 2021-02-03
Copyright Date: 2020-09
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Related DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2020.09.053
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Trace minerals, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) have been well documented as essential components in the diets of poultry since they are involved in various physiological and biological processes within the body in maintaining bird health and performance. Different sources of trace minerals can differently influence growth rate and bird health. Three experiments were conducted to assess the effects of different sources and levels of trace minerals on growth performance and gut health of poultry.

The first experiment (shown in Chapters 3 and 4) evaluated the efficacy of different sources of zinc (Zn) (oxide and sulfate forms - ionic bound forms) versus zinc hydroxychloride (covalent bound form) (ZH) and incremental levels of ZH on growth performance and intestinal health of broilers fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets from d 0 to 35. The dietary treatments consisted of a positive control treatment (50 mg Zn/kg from Zn oxide and 50 mg Zn/kg from Zn sulfate), a negative control treatment (NC) which contained no supplemental Zn; the remaining 5 treatments contained Zn as ZH at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/kg. The findings obtained in this experiment showed that Zn supplemented from ZH was more efficacious than ionic bound forms in improving growth, feed efficiency, and breast meat yield. Despite the finding that feed intake was not different among treatments, the lower inclusion (40 mg/kg) of Zn as ZH resulted in similar body weight gain (BWG) to birds given a higher level of Zn as the ionic bound forms (100 mg/kg). The results also suggest that lack of Zn supplementation can negatively influence tibia development and gut microbiota composition in broilers. Higher supplemental Zn (80 mg/kg) in the diet alters the cecal microbiota population in favour of Lactobacillus and can decrease the total bacterial load. Supplemental Zn sources and levels in the feed have the potential to manipulate the jejunal gut integrity at a molecular level. The optimal requirement of Zn as ZH for broilers would be 100 mg/kg to meet all metabolic requirements of birds.

The second experiment (shown in Chapters 5 and 6) was designed to determine if nutritional (15 mg/kg) and pharmacological (200 mg/kg) levels of Cu hydroxychloride (CH) could effectively improve the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers, compared with Cu sulfate supplementation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control diet (NC) without any supplemental Cu, a basal diet supplemented with either 15 or 200 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4, and 5 diets supplemented with 15, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg supplemental Cu as CH. The results showed that the supplementation of Cu from CH was more efficient than Cu sulfate in promoting growth performance, both at nutritional and pharmacological levels. Birds fed 200 mg/kg Cu as CH gained more weight (77 g/bird) and had a lower FCR (3.2 points) compared to those fed 200 mg/kg Cu as Cu sulfate. This experiment demonstrated that the higher doses of Cu (up to 200 mg/kg) alter gut microbiota profile without compromising gut structural integrity or promoting tissue oxidation. Also, CH is more effective than Cu sulfate in making intestinal villi longer and reducing Cu excretion. Based on broken-line regression models, the optimal supplemental Cu as CH in the diet for the optimum body weight gain and FCR were estimated to be 109.5 and 72.3 mg/kg, respectively.

The third experiment (shown in Chapter 7) was designed to evaluate the effect of complete replacement of sulfate sources of Cu (15 mg/kg), Zn (80 mg/kg), and Mn (80 mg/kg) - (ITM) with hydroxychloride sources - (HTM) at the same inclusions on productive performance, egg quality, tissue mineralization and feed stability in Hy-Line Brown laying hens during post-peak production and under high ambient temperature. The results showed that HTM supplementation improved egg production, feed efficiency, eggshell quality, and egg mineral profile and produced darker brown eggshell color, although feed intake was not affected. These results are probably attributed to higher bioavailability of HTM compared with ITM in egg formation and pigment deposition into the eggshells, and in reducing the extent of oxidation in the feed, especially during high ambient temperature.

The results of these studies indicate that hydroxychloride trace minerals were more beneficial for broilers and layers over the ionic bound forms (sulfate, oxide) in improving growth performance parameters, intestinal health, productive production parameters, and egg quality of poultry. These effects may relate to the higher bioavailability, less reactivity with other minerals, greater oxidation stability of feed, and modulation of the negative effects of the high ambient temperature by trace minerals from hydroxychloride sources in poultry diets. The mechanism by which trace minerals as hydroxychloride contributed to lipid metabolism of broilers requires further research. An investigation into additional benefits of hydroxychloride trace mineral supplementation in post-peak laying hens could be of interest because commercial hens now lay for longer periods.

Publication Type: Thesis Doctoral
Fields of Research (FoR) 2008: 070108 Sustainable Agricultural Development
070203 Animal Management
070204 Animal Nutrition
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 300210 Sustainable agricultural development
300302 Animal management
300303 Animal nutrition
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2008: 820499 Summer Grains and Oilseeds not elsewhere classified
830309 Poultry
839999 Animal Production and Animal Primary Products not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 100411 Poultry
HERDC Category Description: T2 Thesis - Doctorate by Research
Description: Please contact if you require access to this thesis for the purpose of research or study.
Appears in Collections:PoultryHub Australia
School of Environmental and Rural Science
Thesis Doctoral

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