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Title: Genome-wide SNP data unveils the globalization of domesticated pigs
Contributor(s): Yang, Bin (author); Cui, Leilei (author); Perez-Enciso, Miguel (author); Traspov, Aleksei (author); Crooijmans, Richard P M A (author); Zinovieva, Natalia (author); Schook, Lawrence B (author); Archibald, Alan (author); Gatphayak, Kesinee (author); Knorr, Christophe (author); Triantafyllidis, Alex (author); Alexandri, Panoraia  (author)orcid ; Semiadi, Gono (author); Hanotte, Olivier (author); Dias, Deodália (author); Dovč, Peter (author); Uimari, Pekka (author); Iacolina, Laura (author); Scandura, Massimo (author); Groenen, Martien A M (author); Huang, Lusheng (author); Megens, Hendrik-Jan (author)
Publication Date: 2017-09-21
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.1186/s12711-017-0345-y
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Background: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural rev‑ olution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global patterns in pig domestication and diversity related to demography, migration, and selection.

Results: A deep phylogeographic division refects the dichotomy between early domestication centers. In the core Eastern and Western domestication regions, Chinese pigs show diferentiation between breeds due to geographic isolation, whereas this is less pronounced in European pigs. The inferred European origin of pigs in the Americas, Africa, and Australia refects European expansion during the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Human-mediated introgression, which is due, in particular, to importing Chinese pigs into the UK during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, played an important role in the formation of modern pig breeds. Inbreeding levels vary markedly between populations, from almost no runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a number of Asian wild boar populations, to up to 20% of the genome covered by ROH in a number of Southern European breeds. Commercial populations show moderate ROH statistics. For domesticated pigs and wild boars in Asia and Europe, we identifed highly diferentiated loci that include candidate genes related to muscle and body development, central nervous system, reproduction, and energy balance, which are putatively under artifcial selection.

Conclusions: Key events related to domestication, dispersal, and mixing of pigs from diferent regions are refected in the 60K SNP data, including the globalization that has recently become full circle since Chinese pig breeders in the past decades started selecting Western breeds to improve local Chinese pigs. Furthermore, signatures of ongoing and past selection, acting at diferent times and on diferent genetic backgrounds, enhance our insight in the mechanism of domestication and selection. The global diversity statistics presented here highlight concerns for maintaining agro‑ diversity, but also provide a necessary framework for directing genetic conservation.

Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE, 49(1), p. 1-15
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd
Place of Publication: United Kingdom
ISSN: 1297-9686
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 310402 Biogeography and phylogeography
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 100410 Pigs
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
Appears in Collections:Animal Genetics and Breeding Unit (AGBU)
Journal Article

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