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Title: Safety, efficacy and delivery of isometric resistance training as an adjunct therapy for blood pressure control: a modified Delphi study
Contributor(s): Baffour-Awuah, Biggie  (author); Pearson, Melissa J  (author)orcid ; Smart, Neil A  (author)orcid ; Dieberg, Gudrun  (author)orcid 
Publication Date: 2022-03
Early Online Version: 2022-01-12
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.1038/s41440-021-00839-3
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Uncontrolled hypertension remains the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Isometric resistance training (IRT) has been shown to be a useful nonpharmacological therapy for reducing blood pressure (BP); however, some exercise physiologists and other health professionals are uncertain of the efficacy and safety of IRT. Experts' consensus was sought in light of the current variability of IRT use as an adjunct treatment for hypertension. An expert consensus-building analysis (Delphi study) was conducted on items relevant to the safety, efficacy and delivery of IRT. The study consisted of 3 phases: (1) identification of items and expert participants for inclusion; (2) a two-round modified Delphi exercise involving expert panelists to build consensus; and (3) a study team consensus meeting for a final item review. A list of 50 items was generated, and 42 international experts were invited to join the Delphi panel. Thirteen and 10 experts completed Delphi Rounds 1 and 2, respectively, reaching consensus on 26 items in Round 1 and 10 items in Round 2. The study team consensus meeting conducted a final item review and considered the remaining 14 items for the content list. A final list of 43 items regarding IRT reached expert consensus: 7/10 items on safety, 11/11 items on efficacy, 10/12 items on programming, 8/10 items on delivery, and 7/7 on the mechanism of action. This study highlights that while experts reached a consensus that IRT is efficacious as an antihypertensive therapy, some still have safety concerns, and there is also ongoing conjecture regarding optimal delivery.

Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Hypertension Research, 45(3), p. 483-495
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Place of Publication: United Kingdom
ISSN: 1348-4214
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases)
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 200104 Prevention of human diseases and conditions
200199 Clinical health not elsewhere classified
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
Appears in Collections:Journal Article
School of Science and Technology

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