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|Title:||Establishment and Early Growth of Trees in the Cicerone Project||Contributor(s):||Reid, Nicholas (author) ; Hoad, J (author); Eveleigh, C (author); Gaden, C (author); Scott, James Murray (author)||Publication Date:||2005||Handle Link:||https://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/4015||Abstract:||Due to the lack of shelter across the landscape, the Cicerone Project Board elected to plant 2% of each farmlet to commercial and environmental plantings of trees, to provide shade and shelter for livestock, increase biodiversity and contribute to short, medium and long-term farm cash flow through farm forestry diversification. 'Eucalyptus caliginosa' (timber), 'E. nitens' (timber), 'E. radiata' (essential oil) and 'Pinus radiata' (timber) were planted in four upslope plots and 'Casuarina cunninghamiana' (timber), 'E. acaciiformis' (shade, shelter and biodiversity), 'E. dalrympleana' (timber), 'E. nitens' (timber), 'E. radiata' (essential oil) and 'P. radiata' (timber) were planted in four lower lying plots. The pines and natives were planted in August and October 2003, respectively, into a well-prepared, weed-free, mounded, planting bed. After 14 months, 'P. radiata' (98% survival) and 'E. nitens' (89%) survived best in upslope plots, reaching maximum heights of 1.8 and 3.0 m and exhibiting no and little insect damage, respectively. In low-lying plots, 'E. acaciiformis' (86% survival) and 'E. dalrympleana' (80%) survived best, reaching maximum heights of 2.0 m, and exhibiting no and moderate insect damage, respectively. 'P. radiata' performed poorly in the lowest lying plot (17% survival) but otherwise survived well (85-96%). A minority of the other species survived in low-lying plots. Early frosts in March 2004 were the primary cause of tree death in the low-lying plots. 'P. radiata' and 'E. nitens' have commercial promise for timber production on Northern Tablelands farms, while 'E. acaciiformis' should be planted more widely for on-farm shade, shelter and biodiversity benefits. The establishment cost of this trial was $5,596/ha (labour and materials) due to the diligence of the ground preparation, planting and post-planting care. This reduced to $2,636/ha with the receipt of a Landcare grant. However, graziers should not be dissuaded by this establishment cost as experienced local farm foresters have found various ways to cut costs without reducing the diligence of their tree establishment.||Publication Type:||Conference Publication||Conference Name:||The Cicerone Farms: Under the Microscope, Armidale, NSW, Australia, May 2 2005||Conference Details:||The Cicerone Farms: Under the Microscope, Armidale, NSW, Australia, May 2 2005||Source of Publication:||The Cicerone Farms: Under the Microscope - Proceedings of 2005 Symposium, p. 60-66||Publisher:||The Cicerone Project Inc. and the Centre for Sustainable Farming Systems, University of New England||Place of Publication:||Armidale, NSW, Australia||Field of Research (FOR):||070204 Animal Nutrition||Socio-Economic Outcome Codes:||830399 Livestock Raising not elsewhere classified||HERDC Category Description:||E2 Non-Refereed Scholarly Conference Publication||Other Links:||http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/27356736
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