Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/34916
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dc.contributor.authorSalvin, Hannahen
dc.contributor.authorCafe, Lindaen
dc.contributor.authorLees, Angelaen
dc.contributor.authorMorris, Stephenen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Carolineen
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-13T01:10:12Z-
dc.date.available2022-01-13T01:10:12Z-
dc.date.issued2020-07-
dc.identifier.citationApplied Animal Behaviour Science, v.228, p. 1-9en
dc.identifier.issn1872-9045en
dc.identifier.issn0168-1591en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/34916-
dc.description.abstractTemperament is a trait of interest as it impacts ease of handling, production and reactivity to stressful situations. Excessive behavioural reactivity, as an aspect of temperament, may lead to reduced welfare and stockperson safety. Current tests of behavioural reactivity involve isolating the subject and it can be difficult to differentiate between behavioural responses. We therefore aimed to develop a startle test in sheep which quantified variability in behavioural reactivity whilst addressing the effects of social isolation. The startle response is a consistent universal reaction to sudden and intense stimulation, however, magnitude of startle can be highly variable and may be modulated by affective state. In this study, 60 ewes were allocated into three social groups: isolated; surrounded by six life-sized pictures of sheep or; three conspecifics penned on two sides (total six). Sheep were tested over two days in sets of 10 per treatment. Sheep were confined to a 2.1 m × 1.2 m area, with a bowl of feed at one end, for four minutes (min). Approximately 15 s after the sheep commenced eating, a sudden one sec blast of compressed air was delivered to the face. Tri-axial accelerometers, visual scoring, agitometer scores and body temperature were used to assess the magnitude of the startle response and the pre- and post-startle fear behaviours. In the 15 s pre-startle, isolated sheep spent less time eating (p < 0.001; mean percentage of time: 37.4% vs 71.2% and 83.3%) and were 2-4 times longer in a vigilant state (p < 0.001; mean percentage of time: 38.9% vs 18.2% and 11.3%) than those with pictures and conspecifics respectively. Sheep in the conspecific treatment were 3-4 times faster to return to eating after startle than those in the isolated and picture treatments and there was a tendency for them to spend more time eating (p = 0.09) and less time vigilant (p = 0.09) post-startle. For each measure of startle magnitude (startle force, startle duration or retreat distance) the effect of treatment was not statistically important (p > 0.22), however each measure was positively correlated to time spent vigilant post-startle and there were significant increases in time to return to eating for every one unit increase in each of the startle magnitude measures independent of social treatment. The use of conspecifics did not provide social facilitation or buffering of the startle response. This shows promise as a behavioural reactivity test which can utilise conspecifics to reduce any potential negative effects of social isolation during testing.en
dc.languageenen
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.relation.ispartofApplied Animal Behaviour Scienceen
dc.titleA novel protocol to measure startle magnitude in sheepen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.applanim.2020.104996en
dc.subject.keywordsBehaviouren
dc.subject.keywordsReactivityen
dc.subject.keywordsStressen
dc.subject.keywordsWelfareen
dc.subject.keywordsAgriculture, Dairy & Animal Scienceen
dc.subject.keywordsBehavioral Sciencesen
dc.subject.keywordsVeterinary Sciencesen
dc.subject.keywordsAgricultureen
dc.subject.keywordsStartleen
dc.subject.keywordsSheepen
local.contributor.firstnameHannahen
local.contributor.firstnameLindaen
local.contributor.firstnameAngelaen
local.contributor.firstnameStephenen
local.contributor.firstnameCarolineen
local.subject.for2008060801 Animal Behaviouren
local.subject.seo2008839901 Animal Welfareen
local.profile.schoolSchool of Environmental and Rural Scienceen
local.profile.schoolSchool of Environmental and Rural Scienceen
local.profile.schoolSchool of Environmental and Rural Scienceen
local.profile.emaillcafe@une.edu.auen
local.profile.emailalees4@une.edu.auen
local.profile.emailclee31@une.edu.auen
local.output.categoryC1en
local.record.placeauen
local.record.institutionUniversity of New Englanden
local.publisher.placeThe Netherlandsen
local.identifier.runningnumber104996en
local.format.startpage1en
local.format.endpage9en
local.peerreviewedYesen
local.identifier.volume228en
local.contributor.lastnameSalvinen
local.contributor.lastnameCafeen
local.contributor.lastnameLeesen
local.contributor.lastnameMorrisen
local.contributor.lastnameLeeen
dc.identifier.staffune-id:lcafeen
dc.identifier.staffune-id:alees4en
dc.identifier.staffune-id:clee31en
local.profile.orcid0000-0003-4898-2843en
local.profile.roleauthoren
local.profile.roleauthoren
local.profile.roleauthoren
local.profile.roleauthoren
local.profile.roleauthoren
local.identifier.unepublicationidune:1959.11/34916en
local.date.onlineversion2020-05-04-
dc.identifier.academiclevelAcademicen
dc.identifier.academiclevelAcademicen
dc.identifier.academiclevelAcademicen
dc.identifier.academiclevelAcademicen
dc.identifier.academiclevelAcademicen
local.title.maintitleA novel protocol to measure startle magnitude in sheepen
local.relation.fundingsourcenoteThis project was supported by funding from Meat & Livestock Australia Ltd. (North Sydney, NSW, Australia), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, Canberra, ACT, Australia) and the NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI, NSW, Australia) through the Animal Welfare Strategic Partnership. Meat and Livestock Australia project number P.PSH.0807.en
local.output.categorydescriptionC1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journalen
local.search.authorSalvin, Hannahen
local.search.authorCafe, Lindaen
local.search.authorLees, Angelaen
local.search.authorMorris, Stephenen
local.search.authorLee, Carolineen
local.identifier.erajournal3057en
local.uneassociationNoen
local.atsiresearchNoen
local.sensitive.culturalNoen
local.identifier.wosid000538766000002en
local.year.available2020en
local.year.published2020en
local.fileurl.closedpublishedhttps://rune.une.edu.au/web/retrieve/cf3f5904-4d4f-47aa-a9d1-140db85dd941en
local.subject.for2020300306 Animal welfareen
local.subject.for2020310901 Animal behaviouren
local.subject.seo2020109902 Animal welfareen
Appears in Collections:Journal Article
School of Environmental and Rural Science
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