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|Title:||Ecology of the free-living stages of major trichostrongylid parasites of sheep||Contributor(s):||O'Connor, Lauren Johanna (author); Walkden-Brown, Steve William (author) ; Kahn, Lewis (author)||Publication Date:||2006||DOI:||10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.08.035||Handle Link:||https://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/3239||Abstract:||Significant developments over recent decades make it timely to review the ecology of the major gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species of sheep. These include the relentless development and spread of anthelmintic resistance in all of the major sheep production regions of the world, and the consequent drive towards integrated parasite management (IPM) systems incorporating non-chemotherapeutic strategies such as grazing management. The success of such programs is dependent on a detailed understanding of the environmental influences on the free-living stages of the nematode life cycle. Major reviews of the subject were conducted prior to 1980, however considerable work has been completed since, including the development of mathematical models describing the epidemiology of GIN infection. Knowledge of the temperature thresholds for free-living development has also improved, while investigations of moisture influences and interactions with temperature have allowed more effective exploitation of environmental effects for IPM. This review re-evaluates our understanding of the factors that determine the success or failure of the free-living phases of the life cycle in light of these developments. Temperature and moisture are the dominant influences on the free-living stages of 'Haemonchus contortus', 'Teladorsagia circumcincta' and 'Trichostrongylus colubriformis', with the effects of pasture conditions playing a significant modulating role. Early in the free-living phase, the developmental success of the three GIN species is limited by susceptibility to cold temperatures. In general, 'H. contortus' is most susceptible, followed by 'T. colubriformis' and then 'T. circumcincta'. The length of the development cycle is dependent largely on temperature, with development rate increasing at warmer temperatures. However, in order for development to proceed to the infective larval stage, addition of moisture is generally required. There has been considerably less work quantifying the effects of moisture on free-living development, although it is clear that H. contortus is most susceptible to desiccation during the pre-infective stages. Once the infective stage is reached, the influences of temperature and moisture on survival are less important, resulting in considerable survival times under conditions lethal to pre-infective stages. However, hot, dry conditions can be lethal for infective larvae of all three species, while extreme cold is also lethal with significant species variation. While the existing body of knowledge is substantial, the interpretation of many studies and comparison between them is complicated by inadequate description of, or variation in, the environmental measurements used. Confounding the effects of environmental variables on development to infective stage is the migration of larvae from the faeces and subsequent survival on pasture. There is a need to build on recent efforts to explore interaction between the effects of temperature and moisture, and also the trend to more closely simulate field conditions in laboratory studies. We propose a logical framework for future ecological investigations to overcome some of these problems, facilitate the development of a more integrated dataset on the subject and improve prediction of free-living development.||Publication Type:||Journal Article||Source of Publication:||Veterinary Parasitology, 142(1-2), p. 1-15||Publisher:||Elsevier||Place of Publication:||Amsterdam, The Netherlands||ISSN:||0304-4017||Field of Research (FOR):||070708 Veterinary Parasitology||Peer Reviewed:||Yes||HERDC Category Description:||C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal||Statistics to Oct 2018:||Visitors: 188
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Article|
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