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Title: Analysis of Congruency Occurring in Policy Development and Implementation Practices to Promote Gender Equity in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Papua New Guinea
Contributor(s): Waninga, Komhiol Teng (creator); Hardy, Joy  (supervisor); Soliman, Izabel (supervisor)
Publication Date: 2019-05-01
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Abstract/Context: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has more than 850 distinct languages and over 1000 cultures and is inhabited by many small tribes each with their unique culture, belief systems and practices dominated economically by subsistence agriculture, politically by tribal leaders and Chiefs, and socially by the affairs of kinship groups and allies. The social and cultural diversity and terrain contribute to the rudimentary levels of education and opportunities for males and females in PNG. There is a general consensus that women and girls have low social status and influence. In many cases, they are voiceless and unable to assert their basic rights especially for their freedom of speech and expression. Most of the cultural beliefs and practices have overarching benefits in favor of boys and men rather than girls and women. The harsh economic and social conditions, together with embedded traditionally held cultural attitudes, beliefs and practices, militate against the education, wellbeing and advancement of girls and women.
In order to improve the harsh social and cultural conditions, the Government of PNG (GoPNG), through the National Department of Education (NDOE), introduced the Gender Equity in Education Policy (GEEP) in 2002 and the Gender Equity Strategic Plan (GESP) in 2009. The GEEP calls for curriculum, teaching pedagogies, and instructional language and assessment strategies to promote gender equity for males and females. The main focus of this study was to investigate the extent of congruency between policy development and implementation practices of the GEEP and the GESP to promote gender equity in primary teacher education colleges in PNG. The study was conducted in two primary teachers’ colleges and included officers from the respective divisions at the National Department of Education. One college had many more staff and students from matriarchal societies while the other had almost all staff and students from a patriarchal society. These colleges were selected because of the complex cultural beliefs and practices towards males and females, and the traditional roles of men and women and boys and girls.
The study investigated the understanding of college principals, heads of strand, lecturers, pre-service teachers and NDOE officers regarding gender equity and the adoption and implementation of the GEEP and the GESP. Structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used to collect rich data. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) thematic analysis and Fairclough’s (1995) three-dimensional framework were brought together in thematic critical discourse analysis to analyse the structured interviews and focus group discussions. The thematic CDA addressed key concepts in CDA and critical theory such as power, (dis)empowerment, social justice, cultural maintenance, patriarchy, matriarchy, hegemony and agency. This study examined relationships between the attitudes and behaviors of individual participants at both local and national levels, moreover, it explored power relationships and implementation structures and strategies at the macro, meso and micro levels. Thematic CDA was also used to investigate interpersonal relationships between participant groups and to highlight underlying ideologies and discourses.
The study also assessed the experiences, achievements and major challenges faced by the implementers of the GEEP and the GESP. The findings highlighted that the GEEP and the GESP were not developed well to address the existing social and cultural conditions, experiences and context of the people of PNG. The findings also indicated that foreign ideologies and gender principles conflicted with traditional governance structures, belief systems and practices. Dominance, hegemony, suppression, exclusion, leadership, religious beliefs and practices, cultural maintenance and social status were identified as major impediments to the effective adoption and implementation of the GEEP and the GESP. Overall, the findings indicated a lack of congruence between policy development and implementation practices. The promotion of gender equity and implementation of the GEEP and the GESP remain ineffective and need urgent attention from all respective stakeholders.
Recommendations of the study identified the need to establish functional links and structures at local, institutional, national and international levels in pursuit of gender equity. Moreover, the study recommended active political will, proactive leadership, consistent funding, regular mandatory training, communication, social interactions, visitations, monitoring, partnerships and provision of adequate teaching and learning resources.
Publication Type: Dataset
Fields of Research (FOR): 130299 Curriculum and Pedagogy not elsewhere classified
130308 Gender, Sexuality and Education
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 390199 Curriculum and pedagogy not elsewhere classified
390406 Gender, sexuality and education
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO): 930399 Curriculum not elsewhere classified
930403 School/Institution Policies and Development
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 160205 Policies and development
Keywords: kopii
HERDC Category Description: X Dataset
Description: The thesis associated with this dataset can be found here:
Project: Analysis of Congruency Occurring in Policy Development and Implementation Practices to Promote Gender Equity in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Papua New Guinea
Dataset Managed By: Joy Hardy
Rights Holder: Komhiol Teng Waninga
Dataset Stored at: University of New England
Primary Contact Details: Joy Hardy -
Appears in Collections:Dataset
School of Education

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