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Title: Expedition 352 summary
Contributor(s): Reagan, M K (author); Pearce, J A (author); Petronotis, K (author); Almeev, R (author); Avery, A A (author); Carvallo, C (author); Chapman, T  (author)orcid ; Christeson, G L (author); Ferre, E C (author); Godard, M (author); Heaton, D E (author); Kirchenbaur, M (author); Kurz, W (author); Kutterolf, S (author); Li, H Y (author); Li, Y (author); Michibayashi, K (author); Morgan, S (author); Nelson, W R (author); Prytulak, J (author); Python, M (author); Robertson, A H F (author); Ryan, J G (author); Sager, W W (author); Sakuyama, T (author); Shervais, J W (author); Shimizu, K (author); Whattam, S A (author)
Publication Date: 2015-09-29
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.14379/iodp.proc.352.101.2015Open Access Link
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Abstract: The objectives for International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 352 were to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin fore arc to 1. Obtain a high-fidelity record of magmatic evolution during subduction initiation and early arc development, 2. Test the hypothesis that fore-arc basalt lies beneath boninite and understand chemical gradients within these units and across the transition, 3. Use drilling results to understand how mantle melting processes evolve during and after subduction initiation, and 4. Test the hypothesis that the fore-arc lithosphere created during subduction initiation is the birthplace of suprasubduction zone ophiolites. Expedition 352 successfully cored 1.22 km of igneous basement and 0.46 km of overlying sediment, providing diverse, stratigraphically controlled suites of fore-arc basalt (FAB) and boninites related to seafloor spreading and earliest arc development. FAB and related rocks were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites and related rocks were recovered at the two sites (U1439 and U1442) drilled upslope to the west. FAB lavas and dikes are depleted in high–field strength trace elements such as Ti and Zr relative to mid-ocean-ridge basalt but have relatively diverse concentrations of trace elements because of variation in degrees of melting, and potentially, the amount of subducted fluids involved in their genesis. FAB are relatively differentiated, and average degree of differentiation increases with depth, which is consistent with crystal fractionation in a persistent magma chamber system beneath a spreading center. Holes U1439C and U1442A yielded entirely boninite differentiation series lavas that generally become more primitive and have lower TiO2 concentrations upward. The presence of dikes at the base of the sections at Sites U1439 and U1440 provides evidence that boninitic and FAB lavas are both underlain by their own conduit systems and, therefore, that FAB and boninite group lavas are likely offset more horizontally than vertically. We thus propose that seafloor spreading related to subduction initiation migrated from east to west after subduction initiation and during early arc development. Initial spreading was likely rapid, and an axial magma chamber was present. Melting was largely decompressional during this period, but subducted fluids affected some melting. As subduction continued and spreading migrated to the west, the embryonic mantle wedge became more depleted and the influence of subducted constituents dramatically increased, causing the oceanic crust to be boninitic rather than tholeiitic. The general decrease in fractionation upward in the boninite holes reflects the eventual disappearance of persistent magma chambers, either because spreading rate was decreasing with distance from the trench or because spreading was succeeded by off-axis magmatism trenchward of the ridge. The extreme depletion of the sources for all boninitic lavas was likely related to the incorporation of mantle residues from FAB generation. This mantle depletion continued during generation of lower silica boninitic magmas, exhausting clinopyroxene from the mantle such that the capping high-silica, low-titanium boninites were generated from harzburgite. Additional results of the cruise include recovery of Eocene to recent deep-sea sediment that records variation in sedimentation rates with time resulting from variations in climate, the position of the carbonate compensation depth, and local structural control. Three phases of highly explosive volcanism (latest Pliocene to Pleistocene, late Miocene to earliest Pliocene, and Oligocene) were identified, represented by 132 graded air fall tephra layers. Structures found in the cores and reflected in seismic profiles show that this area had periods of normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting. Finally, basement rock P-wave velocities were shown to be slower than those observed during logging of normal ocean crust sites.
Publication Type: Book Chapter
Grant Details: ARC/LE140100047
Source of Publication: Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, v.352, p. 1-32
Publisher: International Ocean Discovery Program
Field of Research (FOR): 040304 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
040312 Structural Geology
040202 Inorganic Geochemistry
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences
HERDC Category Description: B1 Chapter in a Scholarly Book
Appears in Collections:Book Chapter
School of Environmental and Rural Science

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