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Title: Population abundance and distribution of the endangered golden langur (Trachypithecus geei, Khajuria 1956) in Bhutan
Contributor(s): Thinley, Phuntsho  (author); Norbu, Tshewang (author); Rajaratnam, Rajanathan  (author)orcid ; Vernes, Karl  (author)orcid ; Wangchuk, Kezang (author); Choki, Karma (author); Tenzin, Jigme (author); Tenzin, Sangay (author); Kinley (author); Dorji, Shacha (author); Wangchuk, Tshering (author); Cheda, Karma (author); Gempa (author)
Publication Date: 2019-09
Early Online Version: 2019-08-02
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-019-00737-w
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Abstract: Reliable population estimates are lacking for many South Asian primate species, including the golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), which is endangered and restricted to Bhutan and northeast India. Although well studied in India, few studies exist on this species in Bhutan. In November 2017, we undertook a nationwide survey of golden langurs in Bhutan using double observers along trail-based transects in 17 blocks within its habitat, and modeled its distribution using MaxEnt. A total of 2439 golden langurs in 222 groups were collectively encountered by 17 teams of double observers, from which, an overall population of 2516 ± SE 363 individuals and 236 ± SE 9 groups were estimated. Group sizes varied from 2 to 35 individuals with a mean of 11 ± SD 0.38 individuals. A total of 468 adult males (19%), 924 adult females (38%), 649 juveniles (27%), and 398 infants (16%) were counted. Adult male-to-female sex ratio was 1:1.97 and adult female-to-infant ratio was 1:0.43. We determined 2848 km² of suitable area for golden langurs in Bhutan and estimated a density of 0.88 individuals/km². Our population estimate of golden langurs in Bhutan is much lower than the current IUCN estimate of 4000 individuals for Bhutan, necessitating a reassessment of its current conservation status due to threats from road kills, electrocution, and development activities like road construction, hydropower, and electrical transmission lines. We further recommend our refined double-observer survey method to reliably estimate primate populations in rugged terrain.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Primates: journal of primatology, 60(5), p. 437-448
Publisher: Springer Japan KK
Place of Publication: Japan
ISSN: 0032-8332
Field of Research (FOR): 060302 Biogeography and Phylogeography
040699 Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience not elsewhere classified
050202 Conservation and Biodiversity
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 960806 Forest and Woodlands Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales
960810 Mountain and High Country Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
Appears in Collections:Journal Article
School of Environmental and Rural Science
School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences

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