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Title: Characterisation and quantification of changes in odorants from litter headspace of meat chickens fed diets varying in protein levels and additives
Contributor(s): Sharma, Nishchal  (author)orcid ; Choct, Mingan  (author)orcid ; Dunlop, Mark W (author); Wu, Shubiao  (author)orcid ; Castada, Hardy Z (author); Swick, Robert A  (author)orcid 
Publication Date: 2017
DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew309
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Abstract: The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) and additives on odor flux from meat chicken litter was investigated using 180 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with three replicates of 12 birds each. A 5 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: diet (low CP, high CP, high CP+antibiotic, high CP+probiotic, high CP+saponin) and age (15, 29, 35 days). The antibiotic used was Zn bacitracin, the probiotic was a blend of three 'Bacillus subtilis' strains and the saponin came from a blend of 'Yucca' and 'Quillaja'. Odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Litter moisture, water activity (Aw), and litter headspace odorant concentrations were correlated. The results showed that low CP group produced lower flux of dimethyl amine, trimethyl amine, H2S, NH3, and phenol in litter compared to high CP group (P < 0.05). Similarly, high CP+probiotic group produced lower flux of H2S (P < 0.05) and high CP+saponin group produced lower flux of trimethylamine and phenol in litter compared to high CP group (P < 0.05). The dietary treatments tended (P = 0.065) to have higher flux of methanethiol in high CP group compared to others. There was a diet x age interaction for litter flux of diacetyl, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, ethanethiol, propionic acid, and hexane (P < 0.05). Concentrations of diacetyl, acetoin, propionic acid, and hexane in litter were higher from low CP group compared to all other treatments on d 35 (P < 0.05) but not on d 15 and 29. A high litter moisture increased water activity (P < 0.01) and favored the emissions of methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, trimethyl amine, phenol, indole, and 3-methylindole over others. Thus, the low CP diet, 'Bacillus subtilis' based probiotic and the blend of 'Yucca/Quillaja' saponin were effective in reducing the emissions of some key odorants from meat chicken litter.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Poultry Science, 96(4), p. 851-860
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Place of Publication: United Kingdom
ISSN: 1525-3171
Fields of Research (FoR) 2008: 070203 Animal Management
070202 Animal Growth and Development
070204 Animal Nutrition
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 300302 Animal management
300301 Animal growth and development
300303 Animal nutrition
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2008: 970107 Expanding Knowledge in the Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 280101 Expanding knowledge in the agricultural, food and veterinary sciences
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
Appears in Collections:Journal Article

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