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Title: Malaria impact of large dams at different eco-epidemiological settings in Ethiopia
Contributor(s): Birhanie, Solomon Kibret (author); Wilson, Glenn  (author); Ryder, Darren  (author); Tekie, Habte (author); Petros, Beyene (author)
Publication Date: 2017
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.1186/s41182-017-0044-yOpen Access Link
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Abstract: Background: Dams are important to ensure food security and promote economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. However, a poor understanding of the negative public health consequences from issues such as malaria could affect their intended advantages. This study aims to compare the malaria situation across elevation and proximity to dams. Such information may contribute to better understand how dams affect malaria in different eco-epidemiological settings. Methods: Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected from dam and non-dam villages around the Kesem (lowland), Koka (midland), and Koga (highland) dams in Ethiopia between October 2013 and July 2014. Determination of blood meal sources and detection of 'Plasmodium falciparum' sporozoites was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five years of monthly malaria case data (2010-2014) were also collected from health centers in the study villages. Results: Mean monthly malaria incidence was two- and ten-fold higher in the lowland dam village than in midland and highland dam villages, respectively. The total surface area of anopheline breeding habitats and the mean larval density was significantly higher in the lowland dam village compared with the midland and highland dam villages. Similarly, the mean monthly malaria incidence and anopheline larval density was generally higher in the dam villages than in the non-dam villages in all the three dam settings. 'Anopheles arabiensis', 'Anopheles pharoensis', and 'Anopheles funestus s.l.' were the most common species, largely collected from lowland and midland dam villages. Larvae of these species were mainly found in reservoir shoreline puddles and irrigation canals. The mean adult anopheline density was significantly higher in the lowland dam village than in the midland and highland dam villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of 'An. arabiensis', 'An. funestus s.l.', and 'An. pharoensis' in the lowland dam village was 129.8, 47.8, and 33.3 infective bites per person per annum, respectively. The annual EIR of 'An. arabiensis' and 'An. pharoensis' was 6.3 and 3.2 times higher in the lowland dam village than in the midland dam village. Conclusions: This study found that the presence of dams intensifies malaria transmission in lowland and midland ecological settings. Dam and irrigation management practices that could reduce vector abundance and malaria transmission need to be developed for these regions.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Tropical Medicine and Health, 45(4), p. 1-14
Publisher: Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine
Place of Publication: Japan
ISSN: 1349-4147
Fields of Research (FoR) 2008: 060204 Freshwater Ecology
Fields of Research (FoR) 2020: 310304 Freshwater ecology
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2008: 960506 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Fresh, Ground and Surface Water Environments
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 180501 Assessment and management of benthic marine ecosystems
180502 Assessment and management of pelagic marine ecosystems
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
Appears in Collections:Journal Article

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