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Title: DNA Methods to Identify Missing Persons
Contributor(s): Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato (author); Guimaraes, Marco Aurelio (author); Evison, Martin (author)
Publication Date: 2016
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-40199-7_22
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Abstract: Human identification by DNA analysis in missing person cases typically involves comparison of two categories of sample: a reference sample, which could be obtained from intimate items of the person in question or from family members, and the questioned sample from the unknown person-usually derived from the bones, teeth, or soft tissues of human remains. Exceptions include the analysis of archived tissues, such as those held by hospital pathology departments, and the analysis of samples relating to missing, but living persons. DNA is extracted from the questioned and reference samples and well-characterized regions of the genetic code are amplified from each source using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), which generates sufficient copies of the target region for visualization and comparison of the genetic sequences obtained from each sample. If the DNA sequences of the questioned and reference samples differ, this is normally sufficient for the questioned DNA to be excluded as having come from the same source. If the sequences are identical, statistical analysis is necessary to determine the probability that the match is a consequence of the questioned sequence coming from the same individual who provided the reference sample or from a randomly occurring individual in the general population. Match probabilities that are currently achievable are frequently greater than 1 in 1 billion, allowing identity to be assigned with considerable confidence in many cases.
Publication Type: Book Chapter
Source of Publication: Handbook of Missing Persons, p. 337-352
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Place of Publication: Cham, Switzerland
ISBN: 9783319401973
Field of Research (FOR): 060499 Genetics not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 939999 Education and Training not elsewhere classified
HERDC Category Description: B1 Chapter in a Scholarly Book
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