Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/18895
Title: The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25 000 subjects
Contributor(s): Peyrot, W J (author); Lee, Sang Hong  (author); Levinson, D F (author); Steffens, M (author); Thorgeirsson, T (author); Tozzi, F (author); Treutlein, J (author); Uhr, M (author); van den Oord, E J (author); Van Grootheest, G (author); Volzke, H (author); Weilburg, J B (author); Willemsen, G (author); Lucae, S (author); Zitman, F G (author); Neale, B (author); Daly, M (author); Sullivan, P F (author); Martin, N G (author); Medland, S E (author); Metspalu, A (author); Milani, L (author); Noethen, M M (author); Potash, J B (author); Lewis, C M (author); Rietschel, M (author); Rietveld, C A (author); Ripke, S (author); Shi, J (author); Agrawal, Arpana (author); Albrecht, Eva (author); Alizadeh, Behrooz Z (author); Allik, Juri (author); Amin, Najaf (author); Attia, John R (author); Hamilton, S P (author); Bandinelli, Stefania (author); Barnard, John (author); Bastardot, Francois (author); Baumeister, Sebastian E (author); Beauchamp, Jonathan (author); Benjamin, Daniel J (author); Benke, Kelly S (author); Bennett, David A (author); Berger, Klaus (author); Bielak, Lawrence F (author); Weissman, M M (author); Bierut, Laura J (author); Boatman, Jeffrey A (author); Boyle, Patricia A (author); Bultmann, Ute (author); Campbell, Harry (author); Cesarini, David (author); Chabris, Christopher F (author); Cherkas, Lynn (author); Chung, Mina K (author); Conley, Dalton (author); Breen, G (author); Cucca, Francesco (author); Davey-Smith, George (author); Davies, Gail (author); Andrade, Mariza de (author); De Jager, Philip L (author); de Leeuw, Christiaan (author); De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel (author); Deary, Ian J (author); Dedoussis, George V (author); Deloukas, Panos (author); Blackwood, D H (author); Derringer, Jaime (author); Dimitriou, Maria (author); Eiriksdottir, Gudny (author); Eklund, Niina (author); Elderson, Martin F (author); Eriksson, Johan G (author); Evans, Daniel S (author); Evans, David M (author); Faul, Jessica D (author); Fehrmann, Rudolf (author); Cichon, S (author); Ferrucci, Luigi (author); Fischer, Krista (author); Franke, Lude (author); Garcia, Melissa E (author); Gieger, Christian (author); Gjessing, Hakon K (author); Groenen, Patrick J F (author); Gronberg, Henrik (author); Gudnason, Vilmundur (author); Hagg, Sara (author); Heath, A C (author); Hall, Per (author); Harris, Jennifer R (author); Harris, Juliette M (author); Harris, Tamara B (author); Hastie, Nicholas D (author); Hayward, Caroline (author); Heath, Andrew C (author); Hernandez, Dena G (author); Hoffmann, Wolgang (author); Hofman, Adriaan (author); Holsboer, F (author); Hofman, Albert (author); Holle, Rolf (author); Holliday, Elizabeth G (author); Holzapfel, Christina (author); Iacono, William G (author); Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A (author); Illig, Thomas (author); Ingelsson, Erik (author); Jacobsson, Bo (author); Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (author); Milaneschi, Y (author); Madden, P A (author); Jhun, Min A (author); Johannesson, Magnus (author); Joshi, Peter K (author); Jugessur, Astanand (author); Kaakinen, Marika (author); Kahonen, Mika (author); Kanoni, Stavroula (author); Kaprio, Jaakkko (author); Kardia, Sharon L R (author); Karjalainen, Juha (author); McGuffin, P (author); Kirkpatrick, Robert M (author); Koellinger, Philipp D (author); Kolcic, Ivana (author); Kowgier, Matthew (author); Kristiansson, Kati (author); Krueger, Robert F (author); Kutalik, Zoltan (author); Lahti, Jari (author); Laibson, David (author); Latvala, Antti (author); Muglia, P (author); Launer, Lenore J (author); Lawlor, Debbie A (author); Lethimaki, Terho (author); Li, Jingmei (author); Lichtenstein, Paul (author); Lichtner, Peter K (author); Liewald, David C (author); Lin, Peng (author); Lind, Penelope A (author); Liu, Yongmei (author); Pergadia, M L (author); Lohman, Kurt (author); Loitfelder, Marisa (author); Madden, Pamela A (author); Magnusson, Patrick K E (author); Makinen, Tomi E (author); Vidal, Pedro Marques (author); Martin, Nicolas W (author); Masala, Marco (author); McGue, Matt (author); McMahon, George (author); Lin, D (author); Meirelles, Osorio (author); Meyer, Michelle N (author); Mielck, Andreas (author); Milani, Lili (author); Miller, Michael B (author); Montgomery, Grant W (author); Mukherjee, Sutapa (author); Myhre, Ronny (author); Nuotio, Marja-Liisa (author); Nyholt, Dale R (author); Muller-Myhsok, B (author); Oldmeadow, Christopher J (author); Oostra, Ben A (author); Palmer, Lyle J (author); Palotie, Aarno (author); Perola, Markus (author); Petrovic, Katja E (author); Peyser, Patricia A (author); Polasek, Ozren (author); Posthuma, Danielle (author); Preisig, Martin (author); Steinberg, S (author); Quaye, Lydia (author); Raikkonen, Katri (author); Raitakari, Olli T (author); Realo, Anu (author); Reinmaa, Eva (author); Rice, John P (author); Ring, Susan M (author); Ripatti, Samuli (author); Rivadeneira, Fernando (author); Rizzi, Thais S (author); Grabe, H J (author); Rudan, Igor (author); Rustichini, Aldo (author); Salomaa, Veikko (author); Sarin, Antti-Pekka (author); Schlessinger, David (author); Schmidt, Helena (author); Schmidt, Reinhold (author); Scott, Rodney J (author); Shakhbazov, Konstantin (author); Smith, Albert V (author); Lichtenstein, P (author); Smith, Jennifer A (author); Snieder, Harold (author); St Pourcain, Beate (author); Starr, John M (author); Sul, Jae Hoon (author); Surakka, Ida (author); Svento, Rauli (author); Tanaka, Toshiko (author); Terracciano, Antonio (author); Teumer, Alexander (author); Magnusson, P (author); Thurik, A Roy (author); Tiemeier, Henning (author); Timpson, Nicholas J (author); Uitterlinden, Andre G (author); van der Loos, Matthijs J H M (author); van Duijn, Cornelia M (author); van Rooij, Frank J A (author); Van Wagoner, David R (author); Vartiainen, Erkki (author); Viikari, Jorma (author); Abdellaoui, A (author); Perlis, R H (author); Visscher, Peter M (author); Vitart, Veronique (author); Vollenweider, Peter K (author); Volzke, Henry (author); Vonk, Judith M (author); Waeber, Gerard (author); Weir, David R (author); Wellmann, Jurgen (author); Westra, Harm-Jan (author); Wichmann, H-Erich (author); Preisig, M (author); Widen, Elisabeth (author); Wilson, James F (author); Wright, Alan F (author); Yang, Jian (author); Yu, Lei (author); Zhao, Wei (author); Willemsen, G (author); Zhu, Z (author); Boomsma, D I (author); Wray, N R (author); Smoller, J W (author); Penninx, B W J H (author); Stefansson, K (author); Uher, R (author); Kutalik, Z (author); Tansey, K E (author); Teumer, A (author); Viktorin, A (author); Barnes, M R (author); Byrne, E M (author); Bettecken, T (author); Binder, E B (author); Breuer, R (author); Castro, V M (author); Churchill, S E (author); Coryell, W H (author); Craddock, N (author); Craig, I W (author); Czamara, D (author); Degenhardt, F (author); Esko, T (author); Farmer, A E (author); Fava, M (author); Frank, J (author); Gainer, V S (author); Gallagher, P J (author); Gordon, S D (author); Goryachev, S (author); Gross, M (author); Guipponi, M (author); Henders, A K (author); de Geus, E J C (author); Herms, S (author); Hickie, I B (author); Hoefels, S (author); Hoogendijk, W (author); Iosifescu, D V (author); Ising, M (author); Jones, I (author); Jones, L (author); Jung-Ying, T (author); Knowles, J A (author); Hemani, G (author); Kohane, I S (author); Kohli, M A (author); Korszun, A (author); Landen, M (author); Lawson, W B (author); Lewis, G (author); Macintyre, D (author); Maier, W (author); Mattheisen, M (author); McGrath, P J (author); Hottenga, J J (author); McIntosh, A (author); McLean, A (author); Middeldorp, C M (author); Middleton, L (author); Montgomery, G M (author); Murphy, S N (author); Nauck, M (author); Nolen, W A (author); Nyholt, D R (author); O'Donovan, M (author); Kloiber, S (author); Oskarsson, H (author); Pedersen, N (author); Scheftner, W A (author); Schulz, A (author); Schulze, T G (author); Shyn, S I (author); Sigurdsson, E (author); Slager, S L (author); Smit, J H (author); Stefansson, H (author)
Publication Date: 2015
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.1038/mp.2015.50Open Access Link
Handle Link: https://hdl.handle.net/1959.11/18895
Open Access Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4610719Open Access Link
Abstract: An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14 949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15 138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884 105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120 000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Molecular Psychiatry, 20(6), p. 735-743
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Place of Publication: London, United Kingdom
ISSN: 1476-5578
1359-4184
Field of Research (FOR): 110311 Medical Genetics (excl. Cancer Genetics)
110319 Psychiatry (incl. Psychotherapy)
110904 Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences
929999 Health not elsewhere classified
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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