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Title: Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis to optimize benefit
Contributor(s): Inder, Jodie (author); Carlson, Debra (author); Dieberg, Gudrun  (author)orcid ; McFarlane, James R (author)orcid ; Hess, Nicole  (author); Smart, Neil  (author)orcid 
Publication Date: 2016
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.1038/hr.2015.111
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Abstract: The objective of our study was to examine the effects of isometric resistance training (IRT) on resting blood pressure in adults. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials lasting ≥ 2 weeks, investigating the effects of isometric exercise on blood pressure in healthy adults (aged ≥ 18 years), published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1 January 1966 to 31 January 2015. We included 11 randomized trials, totaling 302 participants. The following reductions were observed after isometric exercise training; systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean difference (MD) - 5.20mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) - 6.08 to - 4.33, Po0.00001); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) MD - 3.91mmHg (95% CI - 5.68 to - 2.14, P<0.0001); and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) MD - 3.33mmHg (95% CI - 4.01 to - 2.66, P<0.00001). Sub-analyses showed males tended to reduce MAP MD - 4.13mmHg (95% CI - 5.08 to - 3.18) more than females. Subjects aged ≥ 45 years demonstrated larger reductions in MAP MD - 5.51mmHg (95% CI - 6.95 to - 4.06) than those <45 years. Subjects undertaking ≥ 8 weeks of IRT demonstrated a larger reduction in SBP MD - 7.26mmHg (95% CI - 8.47 to - 6.04) and MAP MD - 4.22mmHg (95% CI - 5.08 to - 3.37) than those undertaking <8 weeks. Hypertensive participants in IRT demonstrated a larger reduction in MAP MD - 5.91mmHg (95% CI - 7.94 to - 3.87) than normotensive participants MD - 3.01mmHg (95% CI - 3.73 to - 2.29). Our study indicated that IRT lowers SBP, DBP and MAP. The magnitude of effect may be larger in hypertensive males aged ≥45 years, using unilateral arm IRT for >8 weeks.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Hypertension Research, 39(2), p. 88-94
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Place of Publication: United Kingdom
ISSN: 0916-9636
Field of Research (FOR): 110602 Exercise Physiology
110201 Cardiology (incl. Cardiovascular Diseases)
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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