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Title: En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination
Contributor(s): Phillips, Wendy J  (author)orcid ; Hine, Donald W  (author)orcid 
Publication Date: 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12141
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Abstract: Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 ('N' = 306; M'age' = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later ('n' = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Journal of Personality, 84(1), p. 79-90
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc
Place of Publication: United States of America
ISSN: 0022-3506
Field of Research (FoR) 2008: 170199 Psychology not elsewhere classified
170106 Health, Clinical and Counselling Psychology
170109 Personality, Abilities and Assessment
Field of Research (FoR) 2020: undefined
520303 Counselling psychology
520304 Health psychology
520302 Clinical psychology
520503 Personality and individual differences
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2008: 920410 Mental Health
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) 2020: 200409 Mental health
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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