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Title: Influence of biochars on flux of N₂O and CO₂ from Ferrosol
Contributor(s): Van Zwieten, Lukas  (author); Kimber, Stephen (author); Morris, S (author); Downie, A (author); Berger, E (author); Rust, J (author); Scheer, C (author)
Publication Date: 2010
DOI: 10.1071/SR10004
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Abstract: Biochars produced by slow pyrolysis of greenwaste (GW), poultry litter (PL), papermill waste (PS), and biosolids (BS) were shown to reduce NO emissions from an acidic Ferrosol. Similar reductions were observed for the untreated GW feedstock. Soil was amended with biochar or feedstock giving application rates of 1 and 5%. Following an initial incubation, nitrogen (N) was added at 165 kg/ha as urea. Microcosms were again incubated before being brought to 100% water-filled porosity and held at this water content for a further 47 days. The flooding phase accounted for the majority (<80%) of total N₂O emissions. The control soil released 3165 mg N₂O-N/m², or 15.1% of the available N as N₂O. Amendment with 1 and 5% GW feedstock significantly reduced emissions to 1470 and 636 mg N₂O-N/m², respectively. This was equivalent to 8.6 and 3.8% of applied N. The GW biochar produced at 350°C was least effective in reducing emissions, resulting in 1625 and 1705 mg N₂O-N/m² for 1 and 5% amendments. Amendment with BS biochar at 5% had the greatest impact, reducing emissions to 518 mg N₂O-N/m², or 2.2% of the applied N over the incubation period. Metabolic activity as measured by CO₂ production could not explain the differences in N₂O emissions between controls and amendments, nor could NH₄⁺ or NO₃⁻ concentrations in biochar-amended soils. A decrease in NH₄⁺ and NO₃⁻ following GW feedstock application is likely to have been responsible for reducing N₂O emissions from this amendment. Reduction in N₂O emissions from the biochar-amended soils was attributed to increased adsorption of NO₃⁻ . Small reductions are possible due to improved aeration and porosity leading to lower levels of denitrification and N₂O emissions. Alternatively, increased pH was observed, which can drive denitrification through to dinitrogen during soil flooding.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48(7), p. 555-568
Publisher: CSIRO Publishing
Place of Publication: Australia
ISSN: 1838-6768
Field of Research (FOR): 050304 Soil Chemistry (excl Carbon Sequestration Science)
050301 Carbon Sequestration Science
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 961402 Farmland, Arable Cropland and Permanent Cropland Soils
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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