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Title: Borneo and Indochina are Major Evolutionary Hotspots for Southeast Asian Biodiversity
Contributor(s): De Bruyn, Mark (author); Stelbrink, Bjorn (author); Maiorano, Luigi (author); Shoup, Robert (author); Von Rintelen, Thomas (author); Morley, Robert J (author); Hall, Robert (author); Carvalho, Gary R (author); Cannon, Charles H (author); Van Den Bergh, Gerritt (author); Meijaard, Erik (author); Metcalfe, Ian  (author); Boitani, Luigi (author)
Publication Date: 2014
Open Access: Yes
DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syu047Open Access Link
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Abstract: Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the SE Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic, and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) data sets to test which areas have been the sources of long-term biological diversity in SE Asia, particularly in the pre-Miocene, Miocene, and Plio Pleistocene, and whether the respective biota have been dominated by 'in situ' diversification, immigration and/or emigration, or equilibrium dynamics. We identify Borneo and Indochina, in particular, as major "evolutionary hotspots" for a diverse range of fauna and flora. Although most of the region's biodiversity is a result of both the accumulation of immigrants and in situ diversification, within-area diversification and subsequent emigration have been the predominant signals characterizing Indochina and Borneo's biota since at least the early Miocene. In contrast, colonization events are comparatively rare from younger volcanically active emergent islands such as Java, which show increased levels of immigration events. Few dispersal events were observed across the major biogeographic barrier of Wallace's Line. Accelerated efforts to conserve Borneo's flora and fauna in particular, currently housing the highest levels of SE Asian plant and mammal species richness, are critically required.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Systematic Biology, 63(6), p. 879-901
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Place of Publication: United Kingdom
ISSN: 1076-836X
Field of Research (FOR): 060399 Evolutionary Biology not elsewhere classified
040308 Palaeontology (incl Palynology)
050202 Conservation and Biodiversity
Socio-Economic Outcome Codes: 960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales
960305 Ecosystem Adaptation to Climate Change
960501 Ecosystem Assessment and Management at Regional or Larger Scales
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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